1. 法律程序和法庭术语


: A formal examination of evidence before a judge, and typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings.


Habeas Corpus

: A writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.


Objection Overruled

: When a judge denies an objection raised by a lawyer during trial, allowing the question or line of testimony to continue.


Burden of Proof

: The duty of proving the truth of a disputed statement or fact, especially in criminal cases, resting on the prosecution.


Jury Duty

: The obligation of citizens to serve on a jury when called upon, typically for a trial.


Statute of Limitations

: A law that sets the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.


2. 合同和法律文件术语

Force Majeure

: Unforeseeable circumstances that prevent someone from fulfilling a contract.



: Something of value given by both parties to a contract that induces them to enter into the agreement to exchange mutual performances.


NonDisclosure Agreement (NDA)

: A legal contract that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.


Arbitration Clause

: A clause in a contract that requires the parties to resolve their disputes through arbitration rather than through the courts.


Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

: Legal rights that result from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, and artistic fields.


3. 财务法和商业法术语


: A legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts.


Fiduciary Duty

: A legal obligation to act in the best interest of another party.



: The state of being unable to pay debts, typically as they fall due.



: Financial instruments that represent a contractual right to receive money or a claim to shares of ownership in a company.


Antitrust Laws

: Laws designed to protect trade and commerce from unfair restraints, monopolies, and pricefixing.


4. 知识产权法术语


: A government authority or license conferring a right or title for a set period, especially the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention.



: The exclusive and assignable legal right, given to the originator for a fixed number of years, to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material.



: A symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product.


Trade Secret

: Information that companies keep confidential to give them a competitive advantage over others, such as formulas, processes, designs, instruments, patterns, or compilations of information that provide an enterprise with a competitive advantage.