法律系统英语短语大全

1. 法律程序和法庭术语

Trial

: A formal examination of evidence before a judge, and typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings.

(审判:在法官和陪审团面前对证据进行正式审查,以决定刑事或民事诉讼案件的有罪与否。)

Habeas Corpus

: A writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.

(人身保护令:要求被拘留的人被带到法官或法庭面前的书面命令,特别是为了确保被拘留者获得释放,除非有合法理由证明其被羁押。)

Objection Overruled

: When a judge denies an objection raised by a lawyer during trial, allowing the question or line of testimony to continue.

(异议不成立:当法官在审判过程中否决律师提出的异议,允许问题或证词继续。)

Burden of Proof

: The duty of proving the truth of a disputed statement or fact, especially in criminal cases, resting on the prosecution.

(举证责任:证明有争议陈述或事实的真相的责任,尤其是在刑事案件中,落在起诉方身上。)

Jury Duty

: The obligation of citizens to serve on a jury when called upon, typically for a trial.

(陪审团职责:公民在被传唤时有义务担任陪审团成员,通常是参加审判。)

Statute of Limitations

: A law that sets the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.

(诉讼时效:规定在事件发生后法律程序可以被启动的最长时间的法律。)

2. 合同和法律文件术语

Force Majeure

: Unforeseeable circumstances that prevent someone from fulfilling a contract.

(不可抗力:不能预见的情况阻止某人履行合同。)

Consideration

: Something of value given by both parties to a contract that induces them to enter into the agreement to exchange mutual performances.

(对价:双方在合同中给予的有价值的东西,使他们愿意进入协议以交换相互的履行。)

NonDisclosure Agreement (NDA)

: A legal contract that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.

(保密协议:一份法律合同,概述了一方希望与另一方分享用于特定目的的机密材料、知识或信息,但希望限制第三方的访问)

Arbitration Clause

: A clause in a contract that requires the parties to resolve their disputes through arbitration rather than through the courts.

(仲裁条款:合同中的一项条款,要求各方通过仲裁而不是通过法院解决争端。)

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

: Legal rights that result from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, and artistic fields.

(知识产权:由工业、科学、文学和艺术领域的知识活动所产生的法律权利。)

3. 财务法和商业法术语

Bankruptcy

: A legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts.

(破产:无法偿还债务的人或其他实体可以寻求部分或全部债务的减免的法律程序。)

Fiduciary Duty

: A legal obligation to act in the best interest of another party.

(受托责任:按照受托人最佳利益的法律义务。)

Insolvency

: The state of being unable to pay debts, typically as they fall due.

(无力偿还债务:无法偿还债务的状态,通常是因为它们到期了。)

Securities

: Financial instruments that represent a contractual right to receive money or a claim to shares of ownership in a company.

(证券:代表收到金钱的合同权利或对公司所有权股份的要求的金融工具。)

Antitrust Laws

: Laws designed to protect trade and commerce from unfair restraints, monopolies, and pricefixing.

(反托拉斯法:旨在保护贸易和商业免受不公平的限制、垄断和价格操纵的法律。)

4. 知识产权法术语

Patent

: A government authority or license conferring a right or title for a set period, especially the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention.

(专利:政府授予的权利或许可,尤其是排他性的权利,可以在一定时期内排除他人制造、使用或销售一项发明。)

Copyright

: The exclusive and assignable legal right, given to the originator for a fixed number of years, to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material.

(版权:授予原创者的排他性和可转让的法律权利,用于一定年限内印刷、出版、表演、制作电影或录制文学、艺术或音乐作品。)

Trademark

: A symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product.

(商标:合法注册或通过使用确立的代表公司或产品的符号、单词或词语。)

Trade Secret

: Information that companies keep confidential to give them a competitive advantage over others, such as formulas, processes, designs, instruments, patterns, or compilations of information that provide an enterprise with a competitive advantage.

(商业秘密:公司保持机密的信息,以使其在竞争对手中具有竞争优势的信息,例如,为企业提供竞争优势的配方、流程、设计、工具、模式或信息编制。)

结语

上述法律术语在不同领域和情境中有着不同的运用,对于从业者和当事人来说,了解这些术语的含义和使用方式至关重要。建议在涉及法律问题时,寻求法律专业人士的帮助以确保合规性和法律保护。

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